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In February 2008, Hector Smith, aged 41, a male prostitute in the Australian Capital Territory who is HIV-positive, pleaded guilty in the ACT Magistrates Court to providing a commercial sexual service while knowing he was infected with a sexually-transmitted disease (STD) and failing to register as a sex worker.

Under ACT law it is illegal to provide or receive commercial sexual services if the person knows, or could reasonably be expected to know, that he or she is infected with a sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Australian Governments began in the mid-1980s to pilot or support programs involving needle exchange for intravenous drug users.

These remain occasionally controversial, but are reported to have been crucial in keeping the incidence of the disease low, as well as being extremely cost-effective.

In 2000, the Australian government introduced a 0 million HIV/AIDS prevention program that was targeted at south-east Asia.

There are three main ways a mother can risk passing on the HIV virus to her child and that is during the pregnancy via crossing of the placenta, during birth if the baby comes in contact with the mothers bodily fluids and through the practice of breastfeeding.At the end of 2013 an estimated 26,800 individuals were living with HIV in Australia Spurred to action both by the emergence of the disease amongst their social networks and by public hysteria and vilification, gay, lesbian and sex worker communities and organisations were instrumental in the rapid creation of AIDS councils (though their names varied), sex worker organisations, drug user organisations and positive people's groups.The AIDS councils were formed in South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia in 1983, and in New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory in 1985.Often, behaviours that lead to women contracting the HIV virus include engagement in sexual intercourse within a heterosexual relation with someone who already has HIV/AIDS, using drugs intravenously or receiving infected blood products.Risks of passing on the HIV virus to an unborn child is extremely high for women whom have been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS.

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